MAIN CLIMATE CHANGE INDICATORS
|Direct greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 1 (1)||(million/teq)||45.26||69.98||(24.72)||-35.3%|
|Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 - Purchase of electricity from the grid (location based)||(million/teq)||1.43||1.55||(0.12)||-7.7%|
|Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 - Purchase of electricity from the grid (market based)||(million/teq)||2.28||2.30||(0.02)||-0.9%|
|Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 - Distribution grid losses (location based)||(million/teq)||3.56||3.82||(0.26)||-6.8%|
|Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 - Distribution grid losses (market based)||(million/teq)||5.57||6.00||(0.43)||-7.2%|
|Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 3||(million/teq)||47.70||56.92||(9.22)||-16.2%|
|- of which emissions connected with gas sales||(million/teq)||21.48||23.92||(2.44)||-10.2%|
|Specific direct greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 1||(gCO2eq/kWh)||214||298||(84)||-28.2%|
|Specific emissions of SO2||(g/kWh)||0.10||0.59||(0.49)||-83.1%|
|Specific emissions of NOx||(g/kWh)||0.36||0.60||(0.24)||-40.0%|
|Specific emissions of particulates||(g/kWh)||0.01||0.12||(0.11)||-91.7%|
|Zero-emission generation||(% of total)||63.4||54.9||8.5||15.5%|
|Total direct fuel consumption||(Mtoe)||23.9||30.1||(6.2)||-20.6%|
|Average efficiency of thermal plants (2)||(%)||44.2||42.0||2.2||5.2%|
|Water withdrawals in water-stressed areas (3)||(%)||22.9||25.4||(2.5)||-9.8%|
|Specific water withdrawals for total generation (4)||(l/kWh)||0.20||0.33||(0.13)||-39.4%|
|Reference price of CO2||(€)||24.72||24.8||(0.1)||-0.3%|
|Ordinary EBITDA for low-carbon products, services and technologies (5)||(millions of €)||15,616||16,241||(625.0)||-3.8%|
|Capex for low-carbon products, services and technologies||(millions of €)||9,575||9,131||444.0||4.9%|
|Ratio of capex for low-carbon products, services and technologies to total||(%)||94.0||92.0||2.0||2.2%|
(1) Specific emissions are calculated considering total emissions from thermal generation as a ratio of total renewable, nuclear and thermal generation (including the contribution of heat).
(2) The calculation does not consider Italian O&G plants being decommissioned or of marginal impact. In addition, the figures do not take account of consumption and generation for cogeneration relating to Russian thermal generation plants. Average efficiency is calculated on the basis of the plant fleet and is weighted by generation.
(3) The figure for 2019 has been recalculated on the basis of the change in scope of plants in water-stressed areas.
(4) Specific withdrawals consist of all water withdrawals from sources on the surface (including recovered rainwater), underground, third-party, the sea and wastewater (supplies from third parties) used for generation processes and for closed-cycle cooling, excluding sea water returned to the sea after the desalination process (brine).
(5) The comparative figure for 2019 has been adjusted to take account of the fact that in South America and Mexico the values relating to large customers managed by the generation companies have been reallocated to the End-user Markets Business Line.
The Group’s ambition for leadership in the fight against climate change was further strengthened in 2020: the target for the reduction of direct emissions from generation by 2020, which was set in 2015 at 350 geq/kWh of CO2 with a 25% reduction compared with 2007, had already been achieved in 2018, two years early. The year 2020 closed with a reduction of 40% in specific emissions from thermal generation compared with the base year of 2007. In 2020, direct emissions of CO2 equivalent (Scope 1) amounted to 45.26 million tons equivalent, a decrease of 35.3% on 2019. As noted earlier, the reduction is attributable to a decline in thermal generation attributable essentially to a sharp decline in coal-fired generation as a result of the absence of the contribution of the Reftinskaya plant, which was sold in 2019, and a concomitant decrease in Italy, Spain and Chile owing to the acceleration of the energy transition. In addition, generation by other higher-emission plants also declined in favor of renewable generation.
The electricity generated by Enel in 2020 from zero-emission sources amounted to 63.4% of total output, a significant increase compared with 2019 (54.9%) due to the increase in the contribution of solar and wind power.
Due to the contraction in coal generation, SO2 and particulate emissions fell sharply, with drops of about 83.1% and 91.7% respectively compared with 2019. NOx emissions also decreased by 40% due to the decline in thermal generation.
RESPONSIBLE WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
|Total withdrawals||(millions of m3)||51.5||77.3||(25.8)||-33.4%|
|Water withdrawals in water-stressed areas (1)||(%)||22.9||25.4||(2.5)||-9.8%|
|Specific water withdrawals for total generation (2)||(l/kWh)||0.20||0.33||(0.13)||-39.4%|
|Total water consumption (m3)||(millions of m3)||20.4||58.1||(37.7)||-64.9%|
|Water consumption in water-stressed areas (%)||(%)||31.6||23.7||7.9||33.3%|
(1) The figure for 2019 has been recalculated on the basis of the change in scope of plants in water-stressed areas.
(2) Specific withdrawals consist of all water withdrawals from sources on the surface (including recovered rainwater), underground, third-party, the sea and wastewater (supplies from third parties) used for generation processes and for closed-cycle cooling, excluding sea water returned to the sea after the desalination process (brine).
Water is an essential part of electricity generation, and Enel therefore believes that the availability of this resource is a critical part of future energy scenarios.
Enel constantly monitors all generation sites located in areas at risk of water scarcity (“water-stressed” areas) in order to ensure the most efficient management of the resource.
Site monitoring is conducted through the following levels of analysis:
- mapping of generation sites in water-stressed areas identified on the basis of the (baseline) water stress conditions indicated by the World Resources Institute “Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas”;
- identification of “critical” generation sites, i.e. those located in water-stressed areas that draw fresh water for operating needs;
- verification of the water management procedures adopted in these plants in order to minimize consumption and maximize withdrawals from lower quality or more abundant sources (waste, industrial or sea water).
About 11% of the Enel Group’s total electricity output uses fresh water in water-stressed areas. In 2020 total water withdrawals were 51.5 million cubic meters, 33.4% less than in 2019, reflecting a decrease in thermal generation compared with the previous year. The specific water withdrawals for 2020 were about 0.20 l/kWh, 39.4% less than in 2019.
Preserving biodiversity is one of the strategic objectives of Enel’s environmental policy. The Group promotes specific projects in the various areas in which it operates in order to help protect local species, their natural habitats, and the local ecosystems in general. These projects cover a vast range of areas, including: inventory and monitoring; programs to protect specific species at risk of extinction; methodological research and other studies; repopulation and reforestation; the construction of infrastructure supports to promote the presence and activities of various species (e.g. artificial nests along power distribution lines for birds or fish ladders at hydroelectric plants), and ecological restoration and reforestation programs.
In 2020, 187 projects were under way to safeguard species and natural habitats, with a total of 4,479 hectares involved in habitat recovery efforts.
Electricity distribution and access, ecosystems and platforms
Electricity transported on Enel’s distribution grid totaled 484.6 TWh in 2020, down 23.1 TWh (-4.5%) from 2019, attributable essentially to Italy (-14.5 TWh), Brazil (-3.4 TWh) and Spain (-2.0 TWh).
The number of Enel end users with active smart meters increased by 471,198 in 2020, mainly in Spain (+211,228) and Romania (+288,859).
Electricity sold by Enel in 2020 came to 298.2 TWh, decreasing by 23.8 TWh (-7.4%) compared with the previous year. Quantities decreased in the following regions in particular: Italy (-7.3 TWh), Spain (-8.7 TWh), Latin America (-6.9 TWh) – mainly in Brazil (-2.7 TWh) – and Romania (-0.9 TWh). In addition, gas sold by Enel in 2020 totaled 9.7 billion cubic meters, a decline of 1.1 billion cubic meters compared with the previous year.
Enel’s leadership position has been gained thanks to the attention we place on the customer in providing quality services: aspects that concern more than just the provision of electricity and/or natural gas, extending, above all, to intangible aspects of our service that relate to the perception and satisfaction of our customers.
Through our products for both the residential and business markets, Enel provides dedicated offers with a lower environmental impact and a concentration on the most vulnerable segments of the population. In fact, all the countries in which the Group operates provide forms of support (often linked to government initiatives) which assist these segments of the population in paying their electricity and gas bills, so as to give everyone equal access to electricity.
Enel has also established numerous processes to ensure customers receive a high level of service. In Italy, the commercial quality of all our contact channels (customer service calls, Enel Points and stores, utility bills, app, e-mail, social media, account manager, fax) is ensured through systematic monitoring of the sales and management processes.
The goal is to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations and respect for the privacy, freedom and dignity of our customers.
Enel is also continuing its efforts to expand digitalization, electronic invoicing and new services. With Enel X, we offer innovative solutions to residential customers (technological solutions for smart homes, home automation, solar and photovoltaic systems, boilers, maintenance services, lighting, etc.), government customers (public lighting, monitoring services for smart cities, security systems, etc.) and large customers (demand response services, consulting and energy efficiency solutions). We also promote electric mobility through the development of public and private charging infrastructures.
Enel charging points increased by 25,672 units in 2020 compared with 2019.
Private charging points increased by 21,033, mainly in North America and Italy, while public charging points increased by 4,639, primarily in Italy and Spain.